Becoming A Self-employed Entrepreneur The Netherlands

Registration in the Dutch trade register is compulsory for every company and every legal entity, including ‘freelance’ and ‘zzp’ (‘zelfstandige zonder personeel’ or self-employed without staff).

When you have decided to start your own business a new world is opening up, with a wide variety of possibilities. You could open a shop or start your own consultancy firm; become a full-time or a part-time entrepreneur. Clients may wish to hire you for advice or construction work.
Before plucking up which is planted, there is a time to plant. In other words: you will have to be prepared to tackle challenges as well – either as a provider of services or products, as a self-employed entrepreneur, a sole trader, an independent contractor, or as a freelancer or so-called “ZZP-er”.

The risky side of freedom and independence

Whether you offer services or products: you will do so at your own risk, expense and with full responsibility towards third parties. As well as this, being self-employed entails certain obligations, such as paying taxes and VAT and keeping records of your business activities. Preparing well is the best way to start. You are definitely not on your own; the Dutch business world offers plenty of competent assistance.

Starting point

Before you visit the Chamber of Commerce to register your enterprise, you should have considered the following:

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value
The Ministry of Economic Affairs awards points for each criterion. You will need a minimum of 30 points for each criterion (total number for all criteria: 300).

The scoring system consists of three parts:

a) Personal experience (education, experience as a self-employed person, working experience);
b) Business plan (market analysis, product/service, price, organisation, financing);
c) Material economic purpose for the Netherlands (innovative, job creation, investments).

You should always contact the IND to find out about the procedure involved in testing the economic interest of the enterprise you intend to start. For nationals of some countries, for example Turkey, special rules apply on the basis of treaties between the EU and these countries. And when you are from the United States of America, it is important to know there is the so-called Nederland-Amerikaans’ vriendschapsverdrag’.

Taking your business from abroad

The Dutch comparative companies Act recognises all foreign legal entities except businesses owned by one man or one woman. If you run a one-person business in your country of origin and you can prove this, for example by submitting a copy of registration in a commercial register in that country, you can bring this enterprise to the Netherlands and have it registered at the Chamber of Commerce as a Dutch one-man or -woman business.

Other legal foreign entities or foreign business forms are simply registered as a foreign legal entity with commercial activities.

Please note that you will still have to comply with the IND residency rules

Starting a branch office in the Netherlands

There is a question of a branch when long-lasting business operations, which form part of the foreign enterprise, are (being) conducted in the Netherlands. A branch can be: a sales office or a production company, but also a representative office. It does not have an independent legal form, but is a part of the foreign enterprise.

Dutch law recognises foreign legal entities. In other words: the foreign legal entity wishing to start activities in the Netherlands needs not be converted into a Dutch legal form.

A business plan is essential

No matter small or big the business is, a business plan will help you identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.

Banks require a business plan when you take out a loan. Even if you do not need the latter, and financing your enterprise is not a problem, a business plan will definitely help you understand the impact of starting a business. Submitting a business plan is also one of the criteria set for non-EU and non-EEA nationals to be allowed to start their own enterprise in the Netherlands.

Get started: Write the plan yourself

Crucial questions you should ask are:

* Which legal form will best suit the enterprise?
* Which products or services will you offer?
* Who will be your clients?
* Promotional activities to get contracts?
* How to optimize visibility to your target group?
* Which prices and fees?
* Financial plan (available budgets, expected turnover, investments)?
* Which insurances do you need?
* Permits and/or licences required?
* Administrational organisation, which form?
* What should be included in your General Terms and Conditions if applicable?

Formats

Business plan formats can be obtained from various private parties that specialise in supporting starters. Just surf the internet. Small business planner at http://www.sba.gov/ is a useful site.

Employment law issue: employed or self-employed?

If you go freelance, you should pay extra attention to your situation, because the term ‘freelancer’ is not a definition recognized by law. Freelancers operate somewhere in between being self-employed and being in paid employment.

As an independent entrepreneur you pay taxes and contributions yourself, and you are not entitled to rights employers are: minimum wage, paid holidays, a holiday allowance, statutory safeguards against dismissal and a statutory notice period.

In order to designate the employment relationship while starting your business, it is important to consider different contracts and apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration.

Employment on the basis of a contract and implied employment

Regardless of the title chosen for the contract with your client, it is considered an employment contract if the following criteria are met:

* your remuneration for the work performed can be seen as wages;
* there is an obligation to do the work yourself: you cannot send someone else to do the job for you. Having to be available for specific work, e.g. on-call service, will also be considered as work performed in employment;
* a relationship of authority: the employer can determine where, when and how the work should be carried out. This relation also exists if the work you do is an essential element in the employer’s business operations or if the employer’s profitability is at risk without you.

If the working relation does not show all characteristics of a “proper” employment relation, it may still be seen as one. This is called a notional employment relationship: although the employment relation has not been established explicitly, there is an implicit employer-employee relation. Consequently, the fee you charge is seen as wage, so, the employer will have to deduct taxes from your wages and pay national insurance and employee insurance contributions.

A notional employment relation exists if:

* you work for a client project for at least at two days a week;
* you earn more than 40% of the minimum wages for the project a week;
* the relation with the client lasts more than 30 days; a new contract within one month after the termination of the first contract is seen as continuation of the previous contract.

A notional employment does not exist if actual and practical independence can be proven, for which a VAR can be instrumental.

Commercial contracts

As a self-employed entrepreneur you or your client can initiate to formalise the contractor-client relation by entering into a commercial contract. Parties should always insist on putting down the arrangements agreed upon.
There are two types of commercial contracts:
1. Service agreement – Under this type of contract you are obliged to perform to the best of your ability, committing yourself to do your client’s work without being employed by him. The work is usually classified as services’.
2. Contractor agreement – Under this type of contract you have a specific target obligation. You commit yourself to produce a concrete, tangible object at a certain price.

Criteria for legal independence: Actual circumstances are decisive here. An official statement signed by client and yourself that the contract is a commercial one is helpful proof. Criteria are:

* the degree of independence and absence of supervision/authority;
* permanence;
* pursuit of profit;
* clientele.

Not just these criteria, but their interconnection especially plays a decisive role.

De Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR)

In order to designate the employment relationship you can apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration. The VAR is an official statement. Based upon the applicant’s information the Tax Administration will define income as:

* Income earned in employment: the freelancer will have a VAR income.
* Income earned from other proceedings: the freelancer will have a VAR-row.
* Profit from enterprise: the freelancer will have a VAR-wuo.
* Partnership’s own risk and account: the freelancer will have a VAR-dga.

VAR-income and -row: employed or not?

With a view to the VAR-income and row, the employer will have to define and check whether he should pay income tax and employees insurance premiums, based upon the existence of an employment contract or otherwise. Explanatory assistance but no definite answer! – can be found at the website of the Ministry of Finance. The Tax Administration may conclude differently.

VAR-wuo and dga: certainty in advance

Only VAR-wuo or -dga supply the employer beforehand with complete financial certainty provided he meets the following conditions:

* The freelancer’s activities should be similar to the VAR’s description. So, the freelancer is not entitled to carry out IT work if the VAR denotes carpentry.
* The freelancer is on the job during the validity of the VAR (1 calendar year).
* The VAR should be the authentic original.
* The employer should determine the freelancer’s identity on the basis of a valid proof of identity (not driver’s licence). Copies of the VAR and proof of identity should be kept in the administration for seven years.

Having acted this way, the employer has a solid defence in case the Tax Administration or UWV may reach another verdict afterwards. So, it may be wise for both freelancers and employers to object against a VAR-income or -row.

VAR application

Bearing in mind the utmost importance of the VAR-outcome, it is obviously important to carefully fill out the VAR-form. Only the freelancer him/herself is allowed to apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR); the employer is not entitled to do this. A directeur-groot aandeelhouder (DGA) should apply for a VAR in case of external consultancy.

The Tax Administration provides a digital VAR application form; to which you will get a reply within 8 weeks. If additional information is needed, the Tax Administration will contact the applicant.

Please note the following when filling out the form: The Tax Administration considers request as a total, coherently, and takes the activities into account. If not all answers are favourable it does not necessarily mean that no VAR-wuo will be given. For example: an interim manager with two or more employers can still be entitled to a VAR-wuo.

The freelancer should write down reasonable expectations. If, however, the actual situation afterwards turns out to have been differently, this will not have any consequences as long as the deviation is within normal risk of enterprise limits. For example, the freelancer expected to have 3 or more employers, but due to a recession this turned out differently.

The freelancer has to fill out the form to the best of his knowledge and should not deliberately misrepresent the state of affairs. If this should afterwards be proven to have been the case, the Tax Administration will recover the indebted taxes and premiums from the freelancer.

Some of the questions need a yes’ or no’ only; choose the nearest suitable.

Relation employer/former employer

As a part-time independent entrepreneur / part-time employee you could get involved in a conflict of interest with your (former) employer. If you intend to provide services, comparable to the ones he provides, you better ask his permission/advice to run your own business.

Starting a business as a full-time independent entrepreneur you should be aware of a possible conflict of interests as well. You probably signed a non-competition clause within your employment contract that remains valid after termination of employment. In any case it is wise to contact/consult your (former) employer of your intentions.

Legal forms and registration of an enterprise

The Chambers of Commerce can answer your questions about the legal environment of your business. Seminars and other regular services are available.

The majority of starting entrepreneurs either choose a one-man business or a general partnership as the legal form for their business, according to their preference on doing business by themselves or in cooperation with others.

In order to accommodate the starting entrepreneur or professional, Dutch law recognizes various legal forms, such as a one-man business, a private limited company (BV), a partnership or a limited partnership. The main issues at stake are the matter of liability if your enterprise should run up debts, and which tax regime applies.

One-person business

One-person business (lit. one-man in Dutch: eenmanzak) is also referred to as sole trader or sole proprietorship or independent contractor.

If you start a one-person business you will be the fully independent founder and owner. More than one person may work in a one-person business, but there can only be one owner. A one-person business can also employ personnel.

Setting up

You can establish a one-person business without a notarial deed. Registration in the Trade Register is mandatory. As a private individual you can only register one one-man business. However, you can have more than one trade name and carry out various business activities under different trade names. These activities can be carried out at the same or at another address, as a branch office of the one-man business.

Liability

As the owner of a one-person business you are responsible for everything concerning your enterprise; for every legal act and all its assets and liabilities. No distinction is made between private and business property. Thus, business creditors can seek recovery from your private property and private creditors from your business property. If your one-man business goes bankrupt, you yourself go bankrupt as well.

If the owner of a one-person business should be married in a community of property regime, the creditors may also lay claim to the partner’s property. Partner liability can be avoided by a prenuptial or a postnuptial agreement drafted by a civil-law notary. However, since partners are usually requested to co-sign when taking a loan, the agreement may not offer the protection expected. A civil-law notary can provide more information.

Taxes and social security

The profit made in a one-person business is taxed in box 1 income tax. If the Tax Administration fully considers you an entrepreneur, you are entitled to tax allowances such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

The owner of a one-person business cannot claim social benefits under the Sickness Benefits Act, the Work and Income Act and the Unemployment Insurance Act. Therefore, it is advisable to take out insurances to cover these risks. You will qualify for the following national insurance schemes:

* General Old Age Pensions Act
* -Surviving Dependants Act
* Exceptional Medical Expenses Act
* General Child Benefit Act

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

With a one-man business no distinction is made between private and business. If you die, both business and private property will fall into your heirs’ estate. You will need to make provisions to guarantee your business’ continuity. A tax consultant could provide more details.

B. General partnership, the “VOF”

A general partnership is a form of cooperation in which you run a business with one or more business partners. You and your partner(s) are the associates or members of the general partnership. One of the characteristics of this legal form is that each partner contributes something to the business: capital, goods, efforts (work) and/or goodwill.

Setting up

A partnership contract is not a statutory requirement for the formation of a general partnership, but it is, of course, advisable to put down in writing what you and your business partner(s) have agreed upon. A partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* name of the general partnership;
* objective;
* contributions by partners in capital, knowhow, goodwill, assets and efforts (work);
* distribution of profits and offset of loss;
* allocation of powers;
* arrangements in case of illness;
* arrangements for a partner’s days off/ holiday.

Liability

An important characteristic of the general partnership is the joint and separate liability of the partners. Each partner can be held fully liable – including private property – if the general partnership fails to meet its obligations, even if these obligations were entered into by another, authorised partner. Creditors of the partnership may seek recovery from your business property and your private property and the property of the other partner(s). Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal effectiveness towards third parties.

The general partnership usually has separate capital’, i.e. the business capital contributed by the partners, which is kept apart from their private property and capital. This capital is to be solely used for business purposes. Should one or more creditors seek recovery from the partnership – for instance in the case of bankruptcy – they could do so from the separate capital. If this should be inadequate to pay the partnership’s debts, creditors may seek full recovery from the partners’ private property. If so, you could hold the other partner(s) liable for having failed to meet their obligations, but only after the creditors have been paid. In private matters creditors of partners cannot seek recovery from the partnership’s business assets or the private property of the other partner(s).

Because of this partners’ broad liability it is advisable to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted if you are married under a community of property regime. A civil-law notary could provide you with more information.

Taxes and social security

Each partner will pay their own income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to all kinds of tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply for the entrepreneur partner as for the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the general partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the general partnership, the partners can include a clause in the partnership contract arranging for the other partners to continue the general partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

C. Limited partnership, the “CV”

A limited partnership, the “CV”, is a special type of general partnership (VOF). The difference is that the CV has two types of business partners: general, and limited or sleeping partners. The latter are only financially involved; they cannot act on behalf of the partnership. Besides, the name of a limited partner cannot be used in the trade name of the limited partnership.

Setting up

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for a limited partnership, but, again, partners better put down the agreements. Apart from the matters mentioned in the VOF, the contract should arrange the distribution of profit between general and limited partners. When registering a limited partnership in the Trade Register, the personal details of the general partners are listed; the details concerning the limited partners are restricted to total number and their contributions in the partnership.

Liability

General partners can be held fully liable if the partnership fails to meet its obligations. Bankruptcy of the limited partnership will automatically lead to the general partners’ bankruptcy (not applicable to limited partners). A limited partner can only be held liable to the maximum sum contributed to the partnership. However, should the limited partner act on behalf of the partnership, he will be seen as a general partner and fully liable, in which case creditors of the partnership can lay claim on his private property as well. Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal force towards third parties.

The general partners’ liability in a limited partnership is quite broad, so, if partners are married under a community of property regime they are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security

General partners pay income tax on their share in the profit. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-person business. Limited partners, who cannot be held personally liable for the enterprise’s debts, are not seen as entrepreneurs by the Tax Administration.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the limited partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the limited partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

D. Professional partnership, the maatschap’

The partnership referred to as maatschap’ under Dutch law differs from the general partnership and the limited partnership in that it is a form of cooperation established by professionals such as doctors, dentist, lawyers, accountants, physiotherapists etc., rather than a cooperation established for the purpose of doing business. The partners are referred to as maten’ instead of partners’. Each maat’ contributes personal efforts, capital and/or assets. The purpose is to share the income earned on the one hand and the expenses incurred on the other.
Setting up a professional partnership

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for the formation of a professional partnership, but partners better lay down their agreements with the other professionals in a partnership contract. This partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* contributions made by the partners;
* distribution of profits, pro rata each partner’s contribution – distributing all profit to one partner is not allowed;
* allocation of powers – each partner is entitled to perform management acts, unless agreed upon otherwise; as of 1 July 2008 the professional partnership has to register in the Trade Register. This does not apply to partnerships that only act internally, such as a partnership in which costs are pooled.

Liability

Each authorised partner can enter into a contract, thus binding the partnership: all partners. Each partner can be held liable for an equal part. If a partner should act beyond his authorization, the other partners will in principle not be held liable: the partner in question is the only partner that has bound himself. A professional partnership has no separate capital’ from the private assets of the partners. Creditors having a claim on the partnership can only seek recovery for equal parts from the individual partners; these creditors do not rank above creditors who have a claim on the private assets of a partner. To a married partner the same reservations apply as to the general partners in general partnerships and limited partnerships. They are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security
Each partner pays income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, he is entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. Regarding social security the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-man business

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the professional partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

E. Private company with limited liability, BV’

In contrast to the legal forms described above – enterprises run by natural persons – the private limited is a legal person: a person having rights and obligations, just like a natural person. The natural person who has incorporated the private limited cannot be held liable, in principle, for the debts incurred by the private limited. The BV itself is seen as the entrepreneur, whereas the natural person who is appointed director merely acts on behalf of the BV and cannot be held personally liable for his acts. A private limited company can be incorporated by one person a sole shareholder BV or by more persons. The capital of a private limited is divided in shares.

Incorporating

This involves a number of statutory requirements, most important of which:
Incorporation takes place through a notarial deed. This should include the articles of association of the company. The civil-law notary will check the legal contents of the articles.
A certificate of no-objection from the Ministry of Justice must be submitted before the incorporation can be effected. The Ministry checks whether the person incorporating the company has ever been involved in bankruptcy proceedings or fraud cases.

The incorporation of a BV requires a minimum capital of EUR 18,000 (cash or in kind) in the private limited.

Liability

The shareholder’s liability is limited to the total sum of his participation. Since the BV is a legal person, having its own independent rights and obligations, the persons involved – directors and supervisors – cannot be held liable for the debt of the company. In other words: the company’s creditors can never seek recovery from the private assets of these officers. However, a company director or officer may be held liable as a private person if he has acted negligently or culpably. If they are responsible for the company’s bankruptcy because of wrongful or fraudulent behaviour in the company’s policy, creditors of the company may file a claim against them.

In the formation phase of the company, a director may be liable for the company’s acts. This liability ends as soon as the legal person is incorporated and the acts are confirmed by the company. As long as the company has not been registered in the Trade Register, directors’ and officers’ liability continues. In practice, limited liability often does not apply because banks require the director and principal shareholder of the company to co-sign for loans taken out on behalf of the BV.

Taxes and social security

The private limited pays corporation tax also referred to as company income tax on the profits earned. The BV’s director and shareholder are employed by the BV His eligibility for social security under the Dutch social security laws depends on the relation of authority between himself and the private limited. A relation of authority is considered not to exist if:

* the director, possibly with his or her spouse, can cast more than 50% of the votes in the shareholders’ meeting;
* two thirds or more of the shares are held by the director and/or close relatives up to the third degree;
* the director cannot be dismissed against their will.

Without a relation of authority, the director and shareholder cannot rely on the social security insurances. He will have to take out his own insurances; to him the same rules apply as to the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Continuation of the company is secured by the fact that the BV is a legal person that exists independently from the persons having incorporated or managing the private limited. When the director dies, the continuation of the enterprise is not at risk, viz. the enterprise is run by the BV and a new director will have to be appointed.

A private limited can be sold in two different ways:

* BV’s shares are sold;
* BV’s enterprise (machines, inventory, stocks, etc.) is sold.

If the shares are sold, the proceeds are subject to income tax (box 2) if the shareholder has a substantial interest (holder of a minimum of 5% of the shares).

If the enterprise is sold, the BV will have to pay corporation tax on the profit or book profit on the sale. If the shareholder of the BV selling the enterprise is a BV itself, the structure is referred to as a holding – advantage of which: the holding will in principle have to pay taxes on the proceeds.

Registration of your enterprise

Before you are allowed to start your business operations, you have to register your enterprise in the Dutch Trade Register, which is administered by the Chambers of Commerce. Registrations in the Trade Register are public; everyone can check whether a particular person is authorised to act on behalf of an enterprise and which legal form it has: a one-man business, a partnership or a private or public limited.

The Chamber of Commerce could run a trade name investigation for you to make sure that the selected trade name does not infringe the rights of other enterprises. This trade name investigation is not free of charge.

Holland Gateway (the cooperation of the Netherlands Chambers of Commerce, Ministry of Economic Affairs and other official institutions) is located at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. This bureau promotes the ease of doing business in the Netherlands.

How to register your enterprise

Registration requirements

Once you have decided upon your business’ legal form, you can have your enterprise registered at the local Chamber of Commerce. Registration should take place within a period of one week preceding, and one week following the actual commencement of business activities.

Without registration in the GBA, you will need to submit authenticated proof of your residential address abroad. The person registering the business has to submit a valid proof of identity, which document has to be personally submitted at the Chamber of Commerce. The following documents are accepted as valid IDs:

* a valid travel document (passport or European ID card);
* a valid Dutch driving licence (non-Dutch driving licence not accepted);
* a residence permit issued by the IND;
* a Dutch refugee passport
* a Dutch aliens passport

If you do not start your business at your home address but at a location you have e.g. rented, you will also be requested to show the lease to confirm the business address.

Once the registration has been completed, you will be given a unique eight-figure registration number. This KvK number should be referred to on all your outgoing mail. Free of charge, you will receive an extract of your registration, a KvK-uittreksel'(excerpt).

Who can register the enterprise

When an enterprise is registered at the Chamber of Commerce, it is of the utmost importance that the registration forms which are submitted have been signed by the right person. Depending on the legal form of the enterprise, the forms can be registered in the Trade Register by:

* the owner of the one-man business (registration of a one-man business),
* the partners (registration of a general partnership, VOF, and a professional partnership, maatschap’)
* or the general partners (registration of a limited partnership, CV’)
* If the enterprise is a legal person, a BV, the civil-law notary will usually see to the registration formalities.

The persons who should register the enterprise and sign the registration forms can also be held responsible in the event an enterprise is not registered.

In special circumstances other persons may be authorized and/or obliged to see to the registration of an enterprise. The Chamber of Commerce can advise you on these circumstances.

Registration forms

The registration forms can be downloaded from the Chamber of Commerce website. As a statutory requirement, all forms are in Dutch and have to be completed in Dutch. Translations in English of forms 6, 11 and 13 are available to assist you while filling in the Dutch form to be handed in.
Registration is not free of charge. When you register a business, a fee will be due for the calendar year the enterprise is registered in. After that initial year, an annual fee will be charged in the first quarter of each year. The total sum of this contribution depends on the legal form.

After registration

Once the enterprise has been registered, it is the owner or partner’s responsibility to keep the information up-to-date. With a BV the manager authorised to act on behalf of the BV is responsible.

Permits and Licences

Most business activities can be performed without any permits or licences, but for some activities, like catering business, transport or taxi firm, you do need a licence. And an environmental permit may be required if your products or business operations negatively affect the environment. Permits and licences can be applied for at the municipality or at the provincial authorities.

Check how you can use your degree or diploma for your business in the Netherlands. International Credential Evaluation: http://www.idw.nl/international-credential-evaluation.html

Some sectors require registration with an industry board or a product board. Registration is a statutory requirement, based on the Act on Business Organisations. An industry board is a kind of interest group for a specific sector. The same applies to a product board, which includes all enterprises in a production chain, from producers of raw material to manufacturers of end products.

Termination / dissolution of the enterprise

When transferring or selling your company, you will have to comply with a number of rules and regulations. You should also enter information about the sale into the Trade Register and reach a settlement with the Tax and Customs Administration. A business transfer within the family involves several other tax aspects.

Expatica will publish Becoming a self-employed entrepreneur the Netherlands (part 1) on Sunday 27 February.

Chambers of Commerce
The Dutch Chambers of Commerce provide information on starting a business, legal forms, registration in the trade register, international trade etc. We have accumulated knowledge, contacts and partnerships, which makes it the essential reference point for every firm doing or seeking to do business.

Drop by for specific information
Apart from general information, the Chambers of Commerce will be glad to provide you with further details regarding your specific position: either at the start of your business or while running it.

If you are located and/or interested in the Region Amsterdam:
Do call 020-5314684 for a consultation with one of our specialists of the Bedrijfsvoorlichting department.

Hire bankruptcy lawyer to reduce hassles of legal process

Bankruptcy is a legal proceeding involving a person or business that is unable to repay outstanding debts. It has emerged has an acceptable method of resolving serious financial troubles. Hiring the professional law firm is the worthwhile option to consider. These firms are known to reduce and ease all the hassles involved in the legal processes. You can opt for the online browsing options to find the reliable firms that offer excellent services to its clients and can provide you the efficient solutions to get out of the worst situations.

However, there are many law firms that understand the frustration and pain you are experiencing. This is one of the well-renowned and trustworthy law firm that help clients through the process of bankruptcy. With several years of experience in this field, the attorneys have established a strong reputation with a wide range of experience in bankruptcy law. They understand the importance of your case and will handle it using the utmost discretion and dedication.

Being a Foreclosure Attorney Harrisburg firm, they have well trained and highly experienced lawyers that are well version in this profession. Apart from this, they also provide effective schemes and solutions from Chapter 7, chapter 11 and chapter 13. Having several years of experience in bankruptcy law, the well versed lawyer John Hyams has attained a graduation degree from West Virginia University in the year 1998. He is also a proud member of American Bar Association, Dauphin County and the Pennsylvania Bar Associations. His practice areas are debtor and creditor law, business law, real estate transactions and more. As well, they also charge a very nominal fee from their clients. They are one of the best-known companies in terms of offering excellent services to all.

If you are facing a huge debt in your business, Bankruptcy Harrisburg is the best alternative for relief. The leading aggregation firm in Harrisburg is acknowledged and respected for handling all levels of bankruptcy cases right from complete debt relief to organized repayment with the utmost commitment. When you work with them, you can ensure that your case is in the hands of one of the best Bankruptcy lawyers. Their team of lawyers has extensive experience practicing and representing cases in federal and state courtroom. This will enable them to provide their every client with excellent representation and positive result.

For more details, you can access their website. For consultation or any query related to their services, you are free to call them anytime.

Hi friends- If you get more information about -www.pa-bankruptcy.com- so please check out these links: – Foreclosure Attorney Harrisburg.

Penis Bongs And Brad Pitt Fantasies 12 Finest Revelations From Madonna’s Reddit AMA

www.smokedoutpipes.com The Backi bong is a bong which doesnt have any gause.As an alternative, a pipe which the bowl has been removed, the place you place a small quantity of rolling tobacco to behave as a temporary platform for the weed to sit down on. This method is best performed with regular plastic bongs and resin. The bongs are configured to deliver the most effective tokes you’ll be able to presumably take. With Ice notches and a filtration system for the smoke, it allows the shoppers to take a huge drag! The diameter of the bong is forty millimeters whereas the height is 30 centimeters tall.

The Grav Labs Steamroller Glass Pipe – 45mm- 14 inches reaches our primary for greatest bowls and bongs. The Grav Steam roller has a top quality of borosilicate glass that is made in the United States of America. There’s option to choose from black and blue for the color cheap water pipes of the Grave Labs- Steamroller Glass Pipe – 45mm- 14 inches. The funnel bowl is 0.fifty seven inches (14.5mm) which is included. On the left hand side of the tube is the carbs gap. The length of it’s 14 inches (35.6 cm.) Coming in at #1 on our record of bowls and bongs, this Grav Lab Steamroller is the bomb!

Most of us have completely no thought where to start after we need to stop smoking marijuana. It’s good that you have made this choice, but if you do not know what you are doing, making an attempt to give up smoking weed can be an absolute nightmare. Due to this fact on this article i wish to give you some tricks to give up smoking marijuana. Also of observe: The legislation preserves the authorized sale of some pipes, resembling those ” primarily made from briar, meerschaum, clay or corn cob” So, meerschaum pipe aficionados, you are in the clear. Your terrifying cranium-shaped pipes are here to remain.

Make a clear break – As a way to stop smoking marijuana it is crucial that you get rid of all your drug gadgets and paraphernalia. Having objects reminiscent of papers, grinders, bongs and roach material around Online Head Shop you can be simply too tempting. Both give all these things to a buddy or simply throw them away. When your stop date comes, you need to be rid of every thing that you just affiliate with pot. This will make it lots simpler to stop smoking weed.

Although marijuana continues to be unlawful in the state of Florida, smoke shops -that’s, stores that promote pipes, water bongs and different smoking paraphernalia -are completely legal as long as seventy five percent of their products come from the sale of tobacco-associated merchandise. Their merchandise have to be labeled -for tobacco use solely,- and if hooligan potheads use stated merchandise for smoking unlawful substances, they’re those who are held accountable for it. However the state – one state legislator, Rep. Darryl Rouson (D-St. Petersburg), particularly – needs the shops to bear a few of the legal burden as well. more information

Your Personalised Number Plate Explained Certificate Of Entitlement

Owning your own personalised number plate is becoming incredibly popular with motorists of all backgrounds. With over 30 million registration numbers in the market place there is a private plate out there to suit every taste and budget. When you purchase a registration number that has never been assigned to a vehicle you will be issued with a V750, commonly known as a Certificate of Entitlement. This pink certificate is a legal document which displays the grantee and nominee names and details of the registration number. The grantee is the purchaser of the vehicle registration number and holds all legal rights to it. The nominee is a name which can be added to enable a second individual to be able to assign the registration number to a vehicle. Unlike the grantee, the nominee has no legal rights to the registration number and it can only be assigned to one vehicle at any one time.

A nominee name can be added or changed at a later date for the current fee of 25. This fee is payable to the DVLA and must be sent with your application. To have a nominee name added to your registration number the grantee must complete the section on the left hand side of the certificate entitled Change of Nominee Details.

If you are the grantee and you change address, the certificate of entitlement can easily be amended. To do this you simply have to complete the box on the right hand side of the V750 and sign and date it. You must then send the certificate to the DVLA at Swansea and a new certificate will be issued and sent to the new address. This is a free procedure and typically takes up to two weeks.

To assign a personalised number plate to your vehicle you must apply to the DVLA. Applications can be made in person or by post to your local DVLA office. In order to assign a registration to your vehicle you must provide the following items:

Your V750 (Certificate of Entitlement)
V5 Registration Document (commonly known as the log bog) for the vehicle you wish to assign the registration to. Please note that the grantee or nominee name must match the name that appears in the V5 log book.
A valid MOT certificate (if applicable)
80 assignment fee if this has not already been paid

When your registration number is assigned to your vehicle you will be issued with a new tax disc showing the new registration number, and your V5 log book will be updated and returned to you by the DVLA. You will be issued with a certificate which enables you to have your acrylic number plates produced by a number plate manufacturer. You must also remember to inform your insurance company of the change of registration. Full instructions on this process are provided on the reverse of your certificate

The certificate of entitlement is valid for 12 months from the date of issue. If after this 12 month period you have not assigned it to a vehicle, it must be renewed with the DVLA. The renewal fee is currently 25 which must be included with your application. Only the grantee may apply to have the registration number renewed. If the registration number is not assigned within the 12 month period and a renewal application is not made, the right to the registration will lapse. If this occurs the grantee may apply for a refund of the 80 assignment fee however they will not be entitled to any other refund for the registration.

Buying and assigning a private number plate is incredibly easy. Car registrations are THE must have motoring accessory. Why not find yours today and start experiencing the joys of having a personal number plate!

Investing In China Proposed Labor Contract Law

If you are considering setting up a company in the People’s Republic of China (the PRC) you should be aware that Chinese law is more protective of employees than the laws of many western nations, particularly the United States. The current PRC Labor Law was enacted in 1994; however, a new PRC Labor Contract Law, intended to supplement the Labor Law, is expected to come into force at the end of 2006. This new law contains both bad news and good news from the point of view of the foreign investor; however, in general it further strengthens the protection of employees.

The Bad News:

Severance Pay

Because it is difficult under the PRC Labor Law to terminate open-term labor contracts, employers usually prefer fixed terms. The Labor Contract Law will address this issue by requiring employers to pay severance compensation to employees on fixed term labor contracts if these contracts are not renewed at the end of the contract term. The proposed compensation is at least one month’s salary for each year of service.

Company Rules/Employee Handbooks

No provision in the employee handbook or other rules affecting the employee’s “personal interest” may be put into force absent consultation with the labor union or other employee representative body (under Chinese law, virtually all employees are required to be unionized).

A Shorter Probationary Period

Currently, the probationary period may be agreed between the employer and employee in the labor contract, but the maximum probation may not exceed 6 months. The Labor Contract Law shortens this period to one month for non-technical work and two months for most technical work (the six-month maximum is still retained for senior technical work, probably because these highly skilled employees are seen as less vulnerable in the employment market. This is significant because it easier to fire an employee during the probationary period than afterwards.

Non-Competition Clauses

Foreign invested companies in particular have tended to insert post-employment non-competition clauses into labor contracts in order to protect their intellectual property rights in China’s wild west business atmosphere. Although the Labor Contract Law allows post-employment non-competition restrictions, it will limit their enforceability to two years and restrict the geographical area of applicability to areas where actual competition is likely to occur. In this respect the reform will render Chinese law more similar to US law, since the current Labor Law does not impose any geographic restrictions at all (but does permits a maximum duration of up to three years). The Labor Contract Law goes even further, however, by requiring the employer buy a non-competition clause by paying a minimum compensation equal to the employee’s annual salary upon termination of the labor contract. It is still unclear what, if any compensation will be due the employee if the period of restriction is less than a year.

Contract Interpretation

Any ambiguous term in a labor contract will be construed in favor of the employee. This rule does little more that codify what has long been the prevailing practice in PRC courts.

Representative Offices

The current Labor Law requires Representative Offices to go through designated agencies such as FESCO (similar to Manpower in the United States) in order to hire employees. The new Labor Contract Law offers Representative Offices greater flexibility by allowing them to directly contract with employees for their first year of employment.

In summary, the new Labor Law will restrict foreign investor’s flexibility and make it more expensive for them to operate. The only good news is that Representative Offices will find it somewhat easier to operate. Typically, the new Labor Contract Law does not bother to define terms like technical, senior technical; and personal interest However, foreign investors have long been used to waiting months and even years for ambiguous terms in Chinese law to be defined through the further issuance of implementing regulations to supplement the main law; meanwhile the government’s actual implementation of the law in particular cases will be closely watched.

Acquire Great Legal Representation by Hiring a professional and Reputable Employment Attorney

Those who have the determination and skills in pursuing their goals could actually become successful in New York City. The competition is cutthroat, which encourages individuals to give their best in everything they do. Alternatively, the Big Apple also appears like a battle field of legal complaints. Legal complaints are most of the time concerning employment issues, and to get a dependable employment lawyer is very important./p>

Almost all big companies have group of lawyers who are always prepared to turn down any employee in the court if he or she becomes involved with employment-related problems. On the other hand, employees also have rights under the law. Employers could possibly violate your rights. If this happens, then be sure to acquire expert advice from a employment attorneys NYC. Legal actions should be taken as soon as disputes take place because your chances of winning the case gradually decrease each time you delay your actions.

Most of the time, individuals have misunderstandings regarding hiring employment attorneys. They believe these experts are only required when filing a lawsuit. Always keep in mind that lawsuits not only cost you too much, they also waste your time and make you emotionally exhausted. This is the main reason precisely why disputes should be solved initially through in and out court negotiations with your employer. For the most part, this assists stop a full-blown legal battle to arise. The New York employment attorney will assist you throughout the whole ordeal, to ensure that the result of the settlement would benefit you.

If litigation is already inescapable, then get ready and be sure that an employment attorney is there to help you out. Absolutely, employment laws change over time and they’re difficult to deal with. Different legal loopholes and traps are unavoidable, which is why if you make even a single wrong action, you would definitely have a lot more problems and may wind up losing the case. Because of this, you will need the assistance of employment and civil litigation lawyers. It is best to choose a seasoned employment attorney NYC with a reputation of assisting clients get favorable outcomes.

Employment attorneys NYC are preferred by small businesses and non-profit organizations as well since they have extensive knowledge on matters concerning employment laws. Through their guidance, entrepreneurs can assure that they’re adhering to the employment policies of New York. Regardless of whether if it’s a big or small company, security standards and responsibilities should be maintained appropriately by employers. Companies can also get employment attorneys to draft company policies. In this way, it will coincide with the employment rules.

Similar to lots of people, you may not know what you must do first or whenever you will make your move. Fortunately, NYC employment lawyers are only a call away if you want to consult about legal issues. By telling them your situation and the entire truth, they will know the best ways concerning how to solve your problem. The employment lawyer you prefer to handle the case will be on your side to make legal strategies so that you can meet your goals quickly.

Nothing can be done if you don’t make an effort, and it can be also true to Employment Lawyers. Other than working hard, you also need to work much better so you can improve and get to another step further. For a much deeper information about New York Employment Lawyer”, check out http://www.youngandma.com. When visiting this, you’ll be able to know useful info.

Rules For The Shared Left-turn Lane In Arizona – The Suicide Lane

Car accident attorneys in Arizona: Available to assist you in the event of an accident involving the use of the shared left-turn lane/median lane/suicide lane/universal turn lane, etc…

There is a reason why many people refer to the shared left-turn lane as the “suicide lane.” Having a lane that is used by traffic moving in opposite directions can be inherently dangerous and can potentially result in “head-on” collisions resulting in serious injuries or fatalities. Additionally, the rules governing the use of the shared left-turn lane are some of the most controversial rules regarding transportation. Everyday people use the turning lane in ways in which they were not intended to be used. Thus, it is imperative to know the rules of the shared left-turn lane, and if involved in an accident caused by improper use of the lane, to consult an experienced car accident attorney in Arizona. Car accident attorneys in Arizona will be knowledgeable of the laws governing the shared left-turn lane and will be able to assist you in your case to ensure that you receive the just compensation you deserve.

What laws regulate the proper use of the shared left-turn lane?

The Arizona statute applicable for use of the universal turn lane is A.R.S. 28-751(4) which states:

4. Two-way left turn lanes. If a special lane for making left turns by drivers proceeding in opposite directions has been indicated by official traffic control devices:

(a) A driver shall not make a left turn from any other lane.
(b) A driver shall not drive a vehicle in the lane except if preparing for or making a left turn from or into the roadway or if preparing for or making a u-turn if otherwise permitted by law.

What is the proper use of the shared left-turn lane?

In Arizona, you may not use the universal turn lane for the purpose of regular roadway driving. You may only use it for the purpose of making a left turn, or preparing to make a left turn, ONTO or FROM a roadway. But a generally guideline used is that if you move into the lane and then pass a side street, then you have used the lane to drive rather than to turn left and you can get a ticket.

Can you use the universal turn lane when making a left-turn across opposing traffic?

A vehicle turning left onto the roadway may utilize the universal turn lane as a staging area by stopping and waiting for traffic proceeding in the same direction to clear before merging into the adjacent lanes of travel. It is not legal to use the lane for a rolling merge into traffic. To make a left turn into the roadway correctly, you must stop once you’ve made the turn into the shared left-turn lane.

The most controversial aspect to the use of these lanes is whether it is illegal to accelerate in the lane while trying to merge. You may find that different law enforcement agencies or judges in your area have opposing views on the correct use with regard to acceleration, so to be safe it is recommended that you do not use the universal turn lane as an “on-ramp”. However, the Arizona Drivers License Manual explaining the universal turn lane does state:

“This lane is only for use of vehicles turning left in either direction. This lane provides a safe area to slow before a left turn off of the street, or to speed up after a left turn onto a street.

Keep in mind that when you are using the universal turn lane as such, your attention is focused in many directions. Often, this is how accidents happen. Whatever you decide, be prudent, and be careful

Can you use the center lane to pass other traffic?

It is illegal and dangerous to use the universal turn lane to pass other traffic. The lane is only designated for use when preparing for or making a left turn from or into a roadway.
Since the use of universal turn lane is especially complex, it is vital that you contact experienced car accident attorneys in Arizona if you are involved in an accident where you or the other driver utilized this lane. Often, these cases are fraught with opposing views, and litigation. Experienced car accident attorneys in Arizona can determine the best course of action to take in your case and determine whether you are entitled to bring or maintain a legal claim for your injuries and damages.

Basic Laws Of Electronics

Thanks to the physical laws of electronics, circuit analysis is very procedural. This is the second entry in a tutorial in basic electronics. The first entry covered basic electronic concepts such as voltage, current, and power. This session will cover Ohm’s Law, and Kirchhoff’s Laws of voltage and current. These are the fundamental laws needed for circuit analysis and design.

Resistors and Ohm’s Law
Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist that in 1826 experimentally determined most basic laws that relate to voltage and current for a resistor.

Ohm’s law basically states that the resistance of a component (commonly a resistor) is equal to the voltage dropped over the resistor divided by the current going through it.

This law makes it relatively easy to find one of three values: voltage across a resistance, the resistance value itself, or the current flowing through the resistance (as long as the other two values are known).

Nodes, Branches, and Loops
These three concepts must be understood for basic circuit analysis. They help determine if components are in series or parallel and if the components share the same current or have the same voltage drops.

A branch represents a single circuit component such as a resistor or voltage source.

A node is a point where two or more branches connect.

A loop is any closed path in a circuit.

Elements are in series if they exclusively share a single node. Elements that are in series share the same current.

Elements are in parallel if they are connected to the same two nodes. Elements in parallel have the same voltage across them.

Kirchhoff’s Laws
The first of Kirchhoff’s Laws is Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). This law states that the sum of all current entering a node or enclosed area of a circuit is equal to zero. Simply put, current entering a node or area equals the current leaving the node or area.

The second of Kirchhoff’s Laws is Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). This law states that the sum of all voltages around a closed path or loop is equal to zero. Simply put, the sum of voltage drops equals the sum of voltage rises.

This is found by following the loop in one direction (the direction does not matter). If the positive terminal is hit first, the voltage is added. If the negative terminal is hit first, the voltage is subtracted. Together these values will equal zero.

Once all of the voltages are found, we can start the loop anywhere we want. I find it convenient to start at the negative terminal of a main voltage source. Since we hit a negative terminal first, we subtract it. Now we simply finish the loop and add the voltages together.

This law comes in very handy for analysis.

Basic DC Analysis
By combining Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws, basic DC circuits are relatively easy to analyze. Knowing that all voltages in a loop add up to zero and all currents entering a node, minus currents leaving a node also equals zero, most current and voltage values can be easily obtained.

If a loop contains one voltage source and multiple resistances, voltage division (eq. 1) should be used to find the value of voltage drops across the known resistances. Once the voltage across the known resistance is found, Ohm’s law (eq. 2) can be used to determine the current flowing through the resistance.

Eq.1 Voltage Division:
((voltage source in volts) (resistor of interest in ohms))/(sum of resistance in loop)

Eq.2 Ohm’s Law:
(voltage across a resistance) = (known resistance)(current flowing through resistance)

Keep in mind that resistors in series can be added to give total resistance between two nodes. The total resistance between two nodes that have resistors in parallel is found using eq. 3 below.

Eq. 3 Equivalent Resistance (Req) of Resistors in parallel:
Req = ((resistance in branch 1)(resistance in branch 2)) / (sum of resistances in both branches)

There is much more to be said about DC circuit analysis but most would go beyond the scope of this article. The purpose of this article is to give a basic understanding of the laws and concepts of basic electronics.

Other concepts that make DC circuit analysis easier are current division, mesh analysis, and nodal analysis. These techniques use the rules behind KVL, KCL, and Ohm’s Law but would require a visual example for thorough explanation.

I hope that this short tutorial has been helpful to anyone who is new to the world of electronics either as a hobbyist or as a technician trying to learn electronics repair.

Legal Ways To Get Free Ps3 Games Today

Buying a new video games when they are released can be hard due to their high end price tag but there are measures you can take to control your spending and periodically obtain complementary PS3 games. You can not acquire every game for no charge but you can put limits on the expenses by following this simplistic guideline. If a free PS3 game is not available think about being patient for a period of time or purchase them used-this is a great method to cut the costs in half. If you are in the habit of purchasing several games a year you will maintain solid savings, potentially hundreds of dollars, by just allowing yourself to go by this rule of thumb.
You should make sure you don’t give the websites that offer free PS3 games any important information, such as your credit card number. There are sites out there that run scams, and it can be easy to become a victim of identity theft. Downloading free PS3 games is illegal as well, and you could be fined or jailed. However, we know the best way to get free PS3 games legally.
The truth is that free doesn’t always literally mean free, since these offers will often times ask you to do certain things on line that actually cost money. For example, you might get your PS3 game ‘free’, if you also join a book club, or sign up for an E Bay Course, or complete any number of other listed offers. This might be worth your while, though, if you find things on there that you were going to do anyhow. At times it is also possible to find offers that really don’t require any payment at all. They might also tell you that you need to get others to join in, and you might have doubts about whether or not this whole thing is above board. Keep on going though, and you will have your free PS3 game.
You have probably seen sites like this on the Internet that offer iPods or laptops. If the product is more expensive you will need to complete more offers and refer more people. These free PS3 games won’t cost you anything directly, except for signing up for offers like membership sites that offer PS3 downloads. You can select offers that you might do anyway. It is worth it to save money!

Law Of Attraction – Easy Technique To Make Law Of Attraction Work For You

In reality, the Law of Attraction is just a “commercial” name for the REAL Law: the Law of Belief. “What the mind can conceive and BELIEVE, the mind can achieve”, “What yoy deeply BELIEVE at the subconscious level, will materialize as your reality”, “What you BELIEVE is what you get”, “It is done unto you as you BELIEVE”.

You must be VERY careful with the incomplete teachings of most gurus and experts who keep telling you to focus on what you want and keep your vibrations HIGH!

Unfortunately, they don’t tell you the MISSING LINK connecting (1) the Law of Attraction, (2) keeping your focus on what you desire, and (3) keeping your vibrations HIGH.

That MISSING link is your BELIEF.

You BELIEFS are the ULTIMATE CAUSE of (1) what you predominantly think about all day long, (2) what you predominantly focus on, (3) the emotional ‘states’ you predominantly experience, and (4) your predominant attitudes and behaviors — which will cause you to send out a very specific type of vibrations.

As long as you continue holding the same OLD beliefs (and value-beliefs), you will CONTINUE to (2) predominantly think the same OLD way, (2) predominantly focus on the same OLD things, (3) predominantly experience the same OLD emotional ‘states’, and (4) predominantly have the same attitudes and behaviors — which will CAUSE you to send out the same OLD BAD vibrations attracting to you the same OLD undesirable results.

Most people FAIL when using the Law of Attraction because they make lots of conscious efforts to focus on what they want and keep their vibrations HIGH, while all the time, their Subconscious mind keep holding to the same OLD beliefs which ARE CAUSING them to automatically send out the same OLD ‘low’ vibrations attracting more of what they do NOT want.

CHANGE your beliefs (and value-beliefs) and almost like by magic, you will (1) predominantly think in a NEW way, (2) predominantly focus on NEW things, (3) predominantly experience NEW and more empowering emotional ‘states’, and (4) you will predominantly have NEW attitudes and behaviors — which will CAUSE you to send out the NEW, high vibrations attracting to you what you truly desire.

The STEPS used to activate the Law of Attraction are the following

1. Identify and make a list of all the limiting beliefs you have about money, including why you believe you cannot make more money.

2. Identify and make a list of all the limiting, conflicting values you have about money . (Value is a certain type of belief which places more importance on certain things than on others. Examples are “It is better to give than to receive”, “I’d rather be honest that rich”, “There are other things more important that money”, “Money isn’t everything”, “Money is not that important to me”, and so on. With those value-beliefs you will never attract great sums of money. instead, you will be a money repellent.

3. Proceed to ELIMINATE all the limiting beliefs and values in your list in your LIST. There are many ways to do that. It is not possible to cover them In this short article.

4. REPLACE those beliefs/values with beliefs/values that will give you what you desire.

5. Study the lives and the way of thinking of very rich people. Make a LIST of those beliefs/values they must possess in order to think, act and achieve the way they do. Incorporate them into your thinking immediately.

6. Keep programming into your mind all those beliefs/values until they become part of your Subconscious mentality — at which time you will automatically start thinking like a rich person.

7. Become proficient at self-hypnosis to make the re-programming easier and faster.

8. Learn to control your Self-Talk to immediately ZAP from your mind any limiting thoughts as soon as they cross your mind. This is also known as “STATE” control. By being able to control your ‘states’ of mind and keep them positive and focused on your desired goals most of the time, you will automatically send out those HIGH vibrations that will attract to you what you desire.

EASY TECHNIQUE TO ACTIVATE THE LAW OF ATTRACTION

It is strongly recommended that you get rid of your limiting beliefs/values before using this technique. The degree of success with this technique will depend on the number of limiting beliefs/values you are able to identify and eliminate.

You will use a FORMAT seldom used by most gurus and experts. It is the COMMAND format or mode. You will COMMAND yourself to do certain things just like the emperor gives commands to his subjects. It is extremely powerful and works when most other types of formats (present tense, first person “I”, etc.) fail.

There is a new biography of Warren Buffett being published. It explains that Buffett was OBSESSED with making money.

The COMMAND mode is an easy and very effective way of imprinting that obsession in your Subconscious mind.

It is recommended you do it for 5-10 minutes when you wake up (AM) and for 5-10 minutes when you go to sleep (PM).

With your eyes closed, take several deep breaths to place yourself in a deeper, more relaxed state. Those who know how to use self-hypnosis, can place themselves in a deep trance state.

Once deeply relaxed, start repeating over and over for 5-10 minutes the following COMMANDS:

“BE A MONEY MAGNET.
ATTRACT MONEY LIKE A MAGNET.
ATTRACT MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF DOLLARS QUICKLY,
EASILY, EFFORTLESSLY”.

LET these COMMANDS sinking deeper and deeper into your Subconscious mind without trying hard. The MORE you try to FORCE things, the GREATER the Subconscious resistance will be.

That is all there is to it.

If you feel like it, and it comes NATURAL to you, you may visualize money coming to you from every source and every direction in great avalanches of abundance. But, that is NOT necessary. Keep it as simple as possible.

Do it every morning and every night.

And, do it also when you have some free time during the day.

The MORE you repeat this simple technique, the FASTER you will get the results you desire.

Enjoy it!

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Leo Foster is in a mission to make the process of being a Millionaire
both EASY and FUN. You may contact him at Millionaire Mind Secrets, Make Money Fast, Get Rich, Be a Millionaire —
There you will find the BEST and FASTEST techniques and tools available, including the “Millionaire Mind Reprogramming Course”, so that you can EASILY DOWNLOAD that ‘Millionaire Mind’ into your Subconscious, and AUTOMATICALLY start to believe, think, behave and achieve like the multimillionaires. Download your free “Money Magnet” mp3 audio.